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Baking Introduction
Home Baking Introduction Baking Principles Pastry Laminated Doughs Custards and Fillings Cakes Cake Decoration Composite Desserts

 

Professional Chef Training

 

 

Introduction to Baking and Pastry

 

This course introduces the fundamental concepts, skills and techniques of basic baking.  Special emphasis is placed on the study of ingredient functions, product identification, and weights and measures as applied to baking.  Students apply basic baking concepts and techniques to the preparation of bakery items such as cookies, cakes, and pies.

 

Text:                 Professional Cooking; Wayne Gisslen; 1995

                       

Day

1                     Classroom:     Introduction to course; introduction to formulas and measurements;

Introduction to equipment and labor saving devices; creaming method. Weights and measures, quickbreads, muffins

            Demo:             Quickbreads and Muffins, how to use a scale

Lab:                 Quickbreads and Muffins

            Homework:     Read Chapter 24 and 28

 

2                     Classroom:     Creamed cookies, intro to piping

Demo:             Piped and Rolled cookies

Lab:                 Shortbread, spritz cookies, linzer cookies

Homework:     Read Chapter 26

 

3                     Classroom:     More Creamed Cookies

Demo:             Creamed method cookies

Lab:                 Chocolate chip cookies and other creamed method cookies

Homework:     Read Chapter 28

 

4                     Classroom:     Creamed cakes, ingredient functions

Demo:             Creamed cake, ganache

Lab:                 Creamed cakes, ganache

Homework:     Study for exam

 

5                     Classroom:     Exam lb1 (Creaming method, weights and measures)

Lab:                 Practical lb1 (Creaming method)

Homework:     Review ingredient functions

 

6          Classroom:     Intro to tarts and pastry cream

            Demo:             Fresh and poached fruit tarts with frangipane and pastry cream

            Lab:                 Fresh and poached fruit tarts with frangipane and pastry cream

            Homework:     Read Chapter 30

 

7          Classroom:     Intro to cut-in method, Intro to pie dough, crisps and cobblers

            Demo:             Pie Dough, biscuits and scones

            Lab:                 Pie Dough, Biscuits and scones

Homework:     Read Chapter 29

 

 

8          Classroom:     Pie fillings and methods, faults and prevention

            Demo:              Quiche and fruit filled pie

            Lab:                 Custard pie, quiche and fruit pie

            Homework:     Review pie methods and fillings, review notes on custards

 

 

 

9          Classroom:     Introduction to Yeast Doughs

            Demo:              Straight dough method bread

            Lab:                 Simple yeast products

            Homework:     Review Chapter 27

 

 

10         Classroom:     Exam lb2 (Pies, Tarts, and Custards)

            Lab:                 Competency lb2 (Pies, Tarts, and Custards), Fruit Tart, Pie

            Homework:     Read Chapter 25

 

 

11         Classroom:     Baked and stirred custards, sugar cooking process

            Demo:             Lemon Curd, Crθme Caramel, Crθme Brulee, and Buttercreams

            Lab:                 Lemon Curd, Crθme Caramel, Crθme Brulee, and Buttercreams

            Homework:     Review for exam          

 

12         Classroom:     Intro to foaming method

            Demo:              Foamed Cakes

            Lab:                 Ladyfingers, roulade, and chiffon

            Homework:     Review pp. 718-727

 

13         Classroom:     Genoise and variations; Hot Soufflιs, Dessert Sauces

            Demo:              Genoise and variations; Hot Soufflιs, Dessert Sauces

            Lab:                 Genoise and variations; Hot Soufflιs, Dessert Sauces

            Homework:     Review lecture notes on foaming method

 

14         Classroom:     Review for final; discussion of pate a choux products

            Demo:              More Genoise and Covering Cakes; pate a choux products

            Lab:                 Genoise continues, filling and covering cakes; eclairs and cream puffs

            Homework:     Study for final

 

15         Classroom:     Final exam

            Lab:                 Final practical

 

 

16 /17 (when applicable) – Content to be announced by instructor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BK 101- Learning and Skill Objectives

 

At the end of this course, the successful student will be able to demonstrate proficiency in the following techniques:  (All of these objectives will be to a MINIMUM quality level of a moderately priced restaurant or bakery.)

 

1.       Describe the procedure for the straight mixing method.

2.       Describe the procedure for the creaming method.

3.       Describe the procedure for the foaming method.

4.       Explain, in detail, the difference between measuring by volume and by weight:

  1. Differentiate items measured by weight and volume
  2. Why accurate scaling is critical to the baking process.

5.       Convert formulas to produce a different yield.

6.       Describe the primary and secondary functions of the bakeshop ingredients as they relate to yeast dough production.  These include:

a. various flours       b. sugars                       c. molasses                   d. corn syrup

e. honey                  f. malt syrup                  g. fat emulsions h. shortenings

i.  butter                  j. margarine                   k. oils                            l. lard

m. milk                   n. creams                      o. dried milk                  p. fermented milk products

q. eggs                    r. fruit                           s. nuts                           t. leavening agents

u. chocolate/cocoa   v. salt                           w. spices                      x. flavorings

7.       List and explain the seven steps in the baking process.

8.       List and describe the differences between lean and rich doughs.

9.       Describe the procedure for producing cookie and pie doughs; explain what is happening at each step and why.

10.   Describe the importance of working in a clean and organized fashion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BK 101 - Competencies

 

 

At the completion of this course, the successful student will be able to pass the following competences:

 

Produce the following products:

 

___muffin

 

___biscuit

 

___mealy and flaky pie dough

 

___genoise

 

___creamed cookie

 

___whipped cream

 

___crθme anglaise

 

 

___Demonstrate the ability to use a scale.

 

___Demonstrate the ability to sharpen knives.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BK 101 - LBC Competency Matrix

 

 

Basic Pastry

 

Dough’s

Sweet

Linzer

Sponge

Biscuit

Muffins

 

Creams

Pastry

Almond

Butter

Chantilly

Anglaise

 

Others

Meringues

Ganache

 

Cookies

Chocolate Chip

 

Sugar Cooking Process

From Simple Syrup to Brown Sugar

 

Fruits

Glaze

Poach

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BK 101  - Competencies

 

The following competencies have been identified as the most important skills to be learned or developed in this class.  During the course, you will be examined for your ability to execute these skills with what has been determined as competence by The Cooking and Hospitality Institute of Chicago.

 

You will be evaluated on a Pass/Fail grading system by your Chef-Instructor for each of these competencies.  A failing grade in any of these areas will require remedial work and possibly re-testing.

 

Competency – Weights and Measures

Objective – In order to achieve this competency the student should know and understand

1.        How to correctly use a scale

2.        How to identify by sight 4 liquid measure containers & amount of liquid each holds.

3.        The relationship between density and weight of common bakery liquids.

Competency – Pie Dough/Dough Handling

Objectives – In order to achieve this competency the student should know and understand:

1.        The essential ingredients used to prepare pie dough

2.        The function of ingredients in preparing mealy and flaky pie dough.

3.        The correct procedures for mixing mealy and flaky pie doughs

4.        How to roll and shape pie dough

5.        The correct procedure for preparing:

a.        Crimped pie shell

b.       Pre-baked pie shell

c.        Fruit pie

d.       Savory pies

6.        The importance of correct oven temperature for baking pies

7.        How to prepare one of the following pies with limited assistance from the Chef:

a.        Fruit

b.       Custard

c.        Cream

Competency – Pastry Cream

Objectives – In order to achieve this competency the student should know and understand:

1.        The ingredients used in preparing pastry cream.

2.        The function of ingredients, amounts and method of preparation for pastry cream.

3.        How to properly cool and store pastry cream.

4.        How to prepare pastry cream with limited assistance from the Chef-Instructor.

Competency – Creaming Mixing Method

Objectives – In order to achieve this competency the student should know and understand:

1.        The following terms as they relate to cake/muffing mixing:

a.        Creaming method

b.       Scaling

c.        Overmixing

d.       Emulsion

2.        When to apply the creaming mixing method

3.        How leavening is achieved in a creaming mix method batter

4.        The importance of mixing time.

Competency – Crθme Anglaise

Objectives – In order to achieve this competency the student should know and understand:

1.        The ingredients and ratios for preparing Crθme Anglaise

2.        The sequence of ingredients and tools needed to prepare Crθme Anglaise

3.        The proper technique in tempering for Crθme Anglaise

4.        How to check for nappe in relation to Crθme Anglaise

5.        How to cool Crθme Anglaise

6.      Prepare Crθme Anglaise with limited assistance form the Chef-Instructor.


BK 101- Grading Criteria

 

 

Classroom Grades:

 

5 Quizzes / homework assignments @ 50 points each                              Total     250 points

3 Unit Exams @ 75 points each                                                              Total     150 points

                                                                        Total Class Grade                   400 points

 

Lab Grades:

 

3 Unit Practicals @ 200 points each                                                       Total     600 points

                                                                        Total Lab Grade                     600 points

 

                                                                        Course Total                           1000 points

 

 

Grading Standard

 

Grade                                                              Score                                                   GPA points

 

A                                                                     90-100%                                                 4.0

B+                                                                    87-89 %                                                  3.5

B                                                                      80-86 %                                                  3.0

C+                                                                    77-79 %                                                  2.5

C                                                                      70-76 %                                                  2.0

D+                                                                   67-69 %                                                  1.5

D                                                                     60-66 %                                                  1.0

F                                                                      0-59  %                                                                0

WF penalty withdrawal                                                                                                      0

W                                                                                                                                   N/A

I                                                                                                                                     N/A


General Kitchen Procedures

 

1.          Students are not allowed in lab without an instructor present.

2.          Store food in hotel pan, bain marie pan and plastic containers, either with lids or wrapped well in plastic and labeled, (product and date).  Do not store food in original containers or in aluminum.

3.          Always check to see if there is any of the product already opened before opening another.

4.          Open boxes of shortening, nuts, etc., by cutting three sides of the box, making a lid.  Scrape down pails of fondant, shortening and icings to prevent the product from drying out.

5.          Leave bins full; clean them; lids are on at the end of class.

6.          Empty dishwasher; turn off and drain machine; clean out strainer; remove plate and clean out underneath.

7.          Return items borrowed from another kitchen.  This practice should be kept to an absolute minimum.

8.          Place all dirty towels in the soiled laundry bus pan.

9.          Save empty plastic containers or their lids.  These can be re-used to store food products.

10.      All utensils have a place where they should be stored.  Return them to their proper place.  If in doubt, ask your instructor.  (a) metal with metal, (b) plastic with wood

11.      Organize, clean and lock cage.

12.      Empty, clean and sanitized containers; store upside down.

13.      Organize refrigerators.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clean Up Procedures

Dish Room

1.        Remove plates and screen; clean out; drain dishwasher; turn off; clean strainer basket; wash perforated pan and sink; clean out sink drain.

2.        Make sure all dishes are clean and organized.

3.        Clean all shelves and stainless steel.

4.        Mop floors and wash rubber mat.

5.        Return all equipment to its proper place.

6.        Throw out garbage and replace with new bag.

 

Stove

1.        Clean all debris off stove tops; check debris catch under stove and for build-up of food; clean.

2.        Turn off gas; clean front of oven door.

3.        Throw garbage out; replace with new bag; wash can.

4.        Organize all shelves; change sheet pans.

5.        Clean under shelves.

 

Dry Storage

1.        Make sure every item is off the floor.

2.        Place containers in the correct section.

3.        Clean and sweep floor.

 

Refrigerators

1.        Organize walk-in, label and date food

  1. put food in proper places
  2. condense food into containers
  3. dispose of all old food
  4. change sheet trays
  5. change fish and chicken bins, make sure they are iced down
  6. sweep and mop floors; sweep freezer
  7. mop in front of walk-in coolers

2.        Organize reach-ins, label and date food

  1. put food in proper places
  2. consolidate food into containers
  3. dispose of all old food and food not labeled/dated
  4. clean shelves and refrigerator
  5. all food is to be on sheet pans

 

Pot Washer Area

1.        Clean and sanitize all pots and equipment.

2.        Make sure all sinks are clean; clean out sink drains.

3.        Make sure all equipment is put away.

4.         Boil water in pots in which sugar was cooked.

 

Floors

1.        Sweep thoroughly before mopping; get under stoves, reach-ins, sinks, and tables.

2.        Mop with clean solution – washing detergent and bleach – including dish room.

3.        Rinse and dry mops; hang or stand upright mop head up; empty mop bucket.

4.        Clean out mop basin.

 

Table Tops

1.        Each group is to clean and sanitize their own tabletops, scales, mixers and small equipment.

 

During clean up, the instructor will remain with the class to supervise.


Daily Clean up Check List

 

Each instructor will assess the condition of the kitchen when he/she walks in and not specific exceptions to the norm on the back of this form.

 

Dish room

­­­___Drain washer; check under plates; turn off; clean strainer; wash perforated pan and sink

___Make sure all dishes are clean and organized.

­­­___Clean all shelves and stainless steel.

­­­___Mop floors and wash rubber mat.

___Return all equipment to its proper place.

___Throw out garbage and replace with new bag.

 

Stove

___Clean all debris off of stove tops; clean debris catch under stove and for build-up of food

___Turn off gas; clean front oven door.

___Throw garbage out; replace with new bag; wash can.

___Organize all shelves; change sheet pans.

___Clean under shelves.

Dry Storage

___Make sure every item is off the floor.

___Place containers in the correct section.

___Clean and sweep floor.

 

Refrigerators

___Organize walk-in, label and date food

­­­___Put food in proper places

___Condense food into containers

___Dispose of all old food

___Change sheet trays

___Change fish and chicken bins; make sure they are iced down

___Sweep and mop floors; sweep freezer

___Mop in front of walk-in coolers

___Organize reach-ins, label and date food

___Put food in proper places

___Consolidate food into containers

___Dispose of all old food and food not labeled/dated

___Clean shelves and refrigerator

___All food is to be on sheet pans

 

Pot Washer Area

___Clean and sanitize all pots and equipment.

­­­___Make sure all sinks are clean.

___Make sure all equipment is put away.

 

Floors

___Sweep before mopping; get under stoves, reach-in, sinks, tables.

___Mop with clean solution – detergent and bleach – including dish room.

___Rinse and dry mops; hang or stand upright mop head up; empty mop bucket.

___Clean out mop basin.

 

Table Tops

___Each group is to clean and sanitize their own table tops, scales, mixers, and small equipment.

 

 

 

 

 

 


BK 101 Recipes

 

Jalapeno Corn Muffins          

Ό c.                  unsalted butter, melted                          

2 c.                   cornmeal                                              

2 c.                   pastry flour                                          

Ό c.                  sugar                                                   

2 t.                   salt                                                      

1 T.                  baking powder                                      

                     large eggs                                            

2 c.                   heavy whipping cream                          

1 c.                   fresh or canned corn                             

1 c.                   finely chopped red pepper                     

Ό c.                  finely chopped jalapeno             

Ύ c.                  grated cheddar cheese

Muffin Method

Bake at 300*F convection until golden brown


Brown Bread Muffin

4 ½ oz              rye flour

6 oz                  cornmeal

5 ½ oz              whole wheat flour

1 ½ oz              baking soda

Ύ t                   salt

2 oz                  brown sugar

5 oz                  corn oil

5 oz                  molasses

7 ½ oz              buttermilk

2                      eggs

5 oz                  raisins

Modified Muffin Method

Bake at 300*F convection until golden brown


Chocolate Muffins   325*F                                         

1 Ό c                cake flour                                            

½ c                   bread flour                                           

Ό c                   cocoa                                                  

½ t                   baking powder                                                              

½ t                   baking soda                                                                  

½ t                   salt                                                      

½ t                   cinnamon                                             

Ό t                   cloves                                                  

                                                                                   

2                                             eggs                                                    

Ύ c                   brown sugar                                         

2oz                   butter, melted                                       

Ύ c                   sour cream                                           

Muffin Method

Bake at 300*F until firm and toothpick comes out clean.



Banana Bread

2 Ύ c.               sugar   

Ύ c.                  egg

 

1 c.                   oil                                                        

1 Ό lb               mashed banana                                    

½ c.                  walnut, toasted

3 ½ c.               bread flour                                           

½ T.                 baking soda                                          

½ T.                 salt

1 t.                   baking powder

½ t.                  each nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon

Ό t.                  clove

1 c.                   water


Carrot/Zucchini Bread

                     eggs                                                    

2 ½ c.               sugar

1 ½ c.               oil                                                        

Text Box: Modified Muffin method
3 greased loaf pans
Bake at 300*F convection until toothpick comes out clean.
1 T.                  vanilla  

3 c.                   zucchini or carrot, grated                       

Ύ c.                  raisins

5 c.                   bread flour                                           

½ T.                 salt

1 T.                  soda                                                    

½ t.                  baking powder                                      

1 t.                   cinnamon


Lemon Poppy Seed Bread

½ lb                  butter                                                               

2 Ό c.               sugar

10 oz                eggs                                                                                        

4 c.                   patent flour                                                      

½ T.                 soda

Ύ t.                  baking powder

Ύ t.                  salt

1 c.                   buttermilk                                                         

                     lemon juice and zest

2 T.                  poppy seeds                                                     

Creaming Method

Bake at 325*F until a toothpick comes out clean.


Chunky Apple Muffins

Ύ cup                     sugar

Ό cup                     vegetable oil

½ cup                     buttermilk

1                              egg

2                              egg whites

1 t                            vanilla extract

2                              medium apples, peeled, cored and diced

1 cup                      bread flour

½ cup                     pastry flour

2 t                            baking powder

½ t                          baking soda

½ t                          cinnamon

Ό t                          salt

Modified Muffin Method.  Bake at 300*F convection until a toothpick comes out clean.

Pear Ginger Muffins

7 oz                  butter                                                               

Ύ c.                  brown sugar                                                                 

6 T.                  sugar

                     eggs

Ό c.                  milk                 

1 t.                   vanilla

2 ½ c.               bread flour                                                       

1 ½ t.                baking powder

½ t.                  baking soda

pinch                salt

1 T                   peeled and chopped ginger                                

2 C.                  chopped pears                                                  

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F convection until a toothpick comes out clean.


Blueberry Sour Cream Muffins

6 oz                  butter                                                               

½ c.                  sour cream

Ό c.                  brown sugar

1 c.                   sugar

                     eggs

1 c.                   milk                                                                 

3 ½ c.               flour                                                                

1 ½ T.              baking powder

½ t.                  salt

2 c.                   blueberries                                                       

Creaming Method

Bake at 275*F convection until toothpick comes out clean.


Buttermilk Biscuits

7 1/2 oz             bread flour

7 1/2 oz             pastry flour

1 t                    salt

1/2 oz               sugar

2 T                   baking powder

5 1/2 oz             shortening and/or butter

8 1/2 oz             buttermilk

Cut-In Method

Bake at 350*F convection until golden brown.


Bourbon Rosemary Coffee Cake

5 ½ oz  butter, creamed

9 oz                  sugar

3                      eggs

½ lb                  cake flour

Ύ t.                  baking soda

Ύ g.                  baking powder

Ύ t.                  salt

Ύ c.                  buttermilk

2 t.                   rosemary, finely chopped

3 T.                  bourbon

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F convection until golden brown and a toothpick comes out clean.


Chocolate Chip Orange Scones                                

2 c.                   pastry flour                                                      

1/3 c.                sugar                                                   

2 t.                   baking powder                                      

½ t.                  salt                                                                                                                               

4 oz                  butter, cold                                                                                                       

                     eggs                                                    

Ό c.                  orange juice                                         

1 t.                   vanilla                                                              

½ t.                  grated orange peel                                            

Ύ c.                  chocolate chips                                     

Cut-In  Method                                                            

Bake at 375*F convection until golden brown.                                                                            


Sweet Roll Dough

8 oz                  water

1 ½ oz              fresh yeast

4 oz                  butter

4 oz                  sugar

3 oz                  eggs

1 Ό t.                salt

1 oz                  NFDMS

1 lb                   bread flour

4 oz                  cake flour

Modified Straight Dough Method

Bake at 325*F convection until golden brown.


Apricot Date Scones

1  c                    pastry flour

Ύ c                    bread flour

1 1/3 c                oatmeal

1 ½ t                  baking powder

Ύ t                     salt

1/3 c                  sugar

1 1/3 c                sugar

6 oz                    butter

½ c                    buttermilk

6oz                     dried apricots

Ό c                    chopped dates

Cut-In Method

Bake at 350*F convection until golden brown.


Oatmeal Raisin Scones          

2 c.                          pastry flour                                                                          

1 c.                          rolled oats                                                                            

Ό c.                         sugar                                                                                     

1 T.                         baking powder                                                                     

½ t.                         salt                                                                                         

Ό t.                         cream of tartar                                                                                                                                      

4 oz                         butter, cold                                                                                                                                           

1/3 c.                       cream                                                                                     

                             eggs                                                                                      

½ T.                        vanilla

½ c.                         raisins

½ c.                         chopped walnuts

Cut-In method

Bake at 375*F convection until golden brown.

Raspberry-filled Almond Scones

2 c.                   pastry flour

2 T.                  sugar

2 t.                   baking powder                                                  

½ t.                  salt                                                                  

½ c.                  shredded coconut                                             

3 ½ oz              almond paste, cold                                            

2 oz                  butter, cold                                                       

1/3 c.                milk

                     egg                                                                  

½ t.                  vanilla

Ό t.                  almond extract

 

½ c                   raspberry preserves

Cut-In Method

Divide dough in two parts, roll each part to ½ inch ,spread jam over one side and sandwich parts together. Cut 8 wedges, eggwash and bake at 350*F convection until golden brown.


Flour Tortillas

3 c.                   bread flour

1 t.                   salt

½ t.                  baking powder                                      

4 oz                  cold vegetable shortening

Ύ c.                  warm water

Cut-In Method                                     

*12 pieces, round, cover

*rest 10 minutes

*roll to 6” circle

*cook on hot ungreased sautι pan until lightly browned on each side.


Shortbread

12 oz                butter

10 oz                sugar                                                   

2 ea.                 egg yolks                                             

2 t.                   orange zest

1 oz                  amaretto

8 oz                  cake flour

8 oz                  bread flour

pinch                salt

Bake at 325*F convection

Yield:  1 half sheet pan

Eggwash and dust with sliced almonds and sugar.


Mark’s Pound Cake

1 lb                   cake flour

11 oz                sweetex

1 lb 3oz             sugar

½ oz                 salt

7 oz                  water

11 oz                eggs

Ύ oz                 vanilla

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F convection until golden brown and toothpick comes out clean.


 

Pound Cake

8 oz      butter

8 oz      sugar

8 oz      eggs

8 oz      cake flour

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F convection until golden brown and toothpick comes out clean.


Chocolate Peanut Butter Cookies                            

4 oz                  Butter                                                  

1 c.                   brown sugar                                         

                     egg                                                      

1 t.                   vanilla                                                  

½ c.                  peanut butter                                        

½ c.                  semisweet chips                                               

1 c.                   pastry flour                                          

Ό c.                  cocoa                                                  

½ t.                  baking soda

½ t.                  salt

Creaming Method  Bake at 300*F until firm, about 10 minutes.                                                                


Honey Oatmeal Cookies

9 ½ oz              butter

4 oz                  sugar

4 ½ oz              raisins

4 oz                  rolled oats

½ t                   vanilla extract

4 ½ oz              honey

½ t                   baking soda

10 ½ oz             bread flour

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F until golden brown.


Oatmeal Coconut White Chocolate Cookies

8 oz                  Butter                                                  

1 c.                   brown sugar                                         

                     egg                                                      

Ό c.                  milk                                                     

2 c.                   pastry flour                                          

2 c.                   oats                                                     

1 t.                   baking soda                                          

½ t.                  salt                                                      

1 c.                   coconut                                                

6 oz                  white chocolate chips    

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F until golden brown.



Chocolate Fudge Cookies

Ύ c                   bread flour

Ύ c                   pastry flour

½ c                   cocoa powder

1 t                    baking

t                       salt

8 oz                  semisweet chocolate

4 oz                  unsweetened chocolate

6 oz                  butter

1 ½ c                brown sugar

                     eggs

1 t                    vanilla

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F until firm.


Sugar Cookie                                                             

10 oz                butter                                                   

1 c                    sugar                                                   

1                                             egg                                                      

1 T                   milk                                                     

2 ½ t                 vanilla

1 ½ c                bread flour

1 c                    pastry flour

1 ½ t                 baking powder

½ t                   salt

Creaming Method

Bake at 325*F until firm.


Lemon Pine Nut Biscotti

2c                     bread flour

1 ½ c                pastry flour

2 t                    baking soda

2c                     sugar

4                      eggs

1 T                   lemon juice

1 t                    lemon zest

½ c                   pinenuts, toasted

One-stage method

Two logs, 12” long Bake at 325*F convection until firm, about 25 minutes

Cut on the bias, about Ύ inch thick. Bake again, cut side up until dry, about another 25 minutes.


Hazelnut Chocolate Biscotti                                     

6 oz                  hazelnuts, toasted, chopped                   

1 2/3 c              pastry flour                                          

½ t                   baking soda                                          

Ό                     salt                                                      

2                                             eggs                                                    

1 T                   Frangelico                                            

1 t                    vanilla                                                  

Ύ c                   sugar                                                   

6 oz                  chopped chocolate                                                                    

One-stage method

Two logs, 12” long Bake at 325*F convection until firm, about 25 minutes

Cut on the bias, about Ύ inch thick. Bake again, cut side up until dry, about another 25 minutes.



Golden Biscotti                                                          

5 oz                  bread flour

5 oz                  pastry flour                              

Ό t                   baking soda                                          

1 t                    baking powder                                      

Ό t                   salt                                                      

4 Ύ oz              sugar                                                   

2 T                   orange zest                                          

5 oz                  chopped almonds                                  

2                           eggs                                                    

½ c                   vegetable oil

1 ½ t                 vanilla

½ t                   almond extract

One-stage method

Two logs, 12” long Bake at 325*F convection until firm, about 25 minutes

Cut on the bias, about Ύ inch thick. Bake again, cut side up until dry, about another 25 minutes.


Butter Spritz Cookies

1lb 8oz              butter

12 oz                granulated sugar

6 oz                  powdered sugar

9 oz                  eggs

2 t                    vanilla extract

2lb 4 oz             cake flour, sifted

 

5 oz                  chopped almonds                                  

Creaming Method

Bake at 325*F, 10-15 minutes


Linzer dough

6 oz granulated sugar

8 oz butter

3 yolks

8 oz bread flour

2 t cinnamon

½ t ground cloves

6 oz ground hazelnuts

2 t grated lemon peel

 

Creaming Method


Chocolate Chip Cookies

12 oz                butter                                                   

10 oz                sugar

10 oz                brown sugar

6 oz                  eggs                                                    

2 t.                   vanilla

2 oz                  water

1lb 4oz              pastry flour                                          

Ό oz                 baking soda

Ό oz                 salt

 

1lb 4oz              chocolate chunks (use combination of white, milk and dark)

8 oz                  chopped pecans or walnuts

Creaming Method

Bake at 300*F convection.

Ritz-Carlton Brownies
8 oz                  butter
3 oz                  water
18 oz                sugar
Ύ t.                  salt
8 oz                  beaten
½ t.                  vanilla extract
26 oz                semi-sweet chocolate, melted
10 oz                bread flour
10 oz                pastry flour
Ό t.                  baking powder
Heat the butter, water, sugar and salt on the stove and temper into the beaten eggs and vanilla.  Pour into a mixer and blend with the melted chocolate.  Add the flours and baking powder and mix quickly to a smooth batter.  Pour into a prepared ½ sheet pan with parchment.
 
Option:  can be swirled with thick caramel sauce.

Bake 18 minutes at 300*F.


Ladyfingers I

                     eggs                                                    

                     yolks                                        

2/3 c.                sugar

1 t.                   vanilla                                                  

1 Ό c.               sifted cake flour                                   

pinch                salt

1 ½ oz              melted butter, cool

Whole Egg Foam Method

Bake at 300*F convection for about 10 minutes.                         


Ladyfingers II

6                      egg yolks

2½ oz               sugar

6                      egg whites

2 ½ oz              sugar

4 oz                  cake flour

 

Separated Egg Foam Method

Bake at 300*F, convection for about 10 minutes


Genoise

12 oz                eggs                                                    

8 oz                  sugar                                                   

8 oz                  cake flour                                            

2 ½ oz              butter, melted                                       

1 t                    vanilla              

 

Whole Egg Foam Method. One 10” cake

Bake at 350*F for about 30 minutes. Cool upside down on parchment dusted with granulated sugar.



Chocolate Genoise

6                      eggs

1                      egg white

5 oz                  sugar

½ t                   salt

3 oz                  cake flour

2 oz                  bread flour

1 oz                  cocoa powder

2½ oz butter melted

Whole Egg Foam Method

Bake at 350*F convection for about 20-25 minutes.  One 10” cake


Flaky Pie Dough                                                         Mealy Pie Dough

20 oz                pastry flour, sifted                                  20 oz                pastry flour, sifted

14 oz                butter                                                    13 oz                butter

6 oz                  cold water                                             6 oz                  cold water

1 1/2 t               salt                                                       1 1/2 t               salt

1 oz                  sugar                                                    1 oz                  sugar

Cut-In Method

Chunks of butter for flaky should be pea sized and for mealy should be corn meal-like.


Cooked Fruit Filling

2 lb                   trimmed fruit

5 oz                  water

5 oz                  sugar

½ oz                 lemon juice

2 ½ oz              water

2 oz                  cornstarch

pinch                nutmeg

5 oz                  sugar

½ t                   salt

1 oz                  butter

1t                     cinnamon

½ t                   nutmeg

Cooked fruit method


Cooked Juice Filling 

2 ½ lb               frozen or canned fruit                                       

12 oz                drained juice and water                                                                         

4 oz                  water                                                   

2 oz                  cornstarch                                            

3/4 oz               lemon juice                                           

14 oz                sugar                                                   

1 t                    salt                                                      

1 ½ oz              butter

Cooked Juice method


Old Fashion Pie Filling

3 lb                   hard fruit, peeled, cored and sliced         

1 T                   lemon juice

10 oz                sugar

1 oz                  cornstarch

1 t                    salt

1 1/2 t               spices

Finish with dots of butter

Old Fashioned Method

Crθme Anglaise

         egg yolks

5 oz      sugar

8 oz      cream

8 oz      milk

1 ½ t     vanilla

Whip the yolks and half of the sugar to smooth.  Bring the milk and cream with the other half of the sugar to the boil. Temper the milk into the yolks and return to the heat. Heat mixture until nappe-consistency. Remove from heat and add vanilla. Place in a clean stainless container and refrigerate.


Pastry Cream

16 oz                milk

2 oz                  sugar

2                      egg yolks

                     whole eggs

3 T                   cornstarch

2 oz                  sugar

1 oz                  butter

½ oz                 vanilla extract

Scald milk with first quantity of sugar (and vanilla.)  Combine egg, yolks with cornstarch and second quantity of sugar.  Temper hot milk into egg mixture, return to pan.  Over medium heat, bring to a boil, whisking constantly.  Remove from heat, stir in butter and salt. Chill over ice water bath.


Almond Cream  (Frangipane)                        

1 lb                   almond paste                                        

2 oz                  sugar                                                   

8 oz                  butter                                                   

2 oz                  cake flour                                            

8 oz                  eggs

Creaming Method


Pumpkin Pie Filling                                                   

1 Ύ c                pumpkin puree                                      

1 Ύ t                 cinnamon                                             

½ t                   ground ginger                                       

½ t                   ground nutmeg                                                             

Ό t                   ground cloves                                       

½ t                   salt      

2/3 c                 brown sugar                                         

2 T                   granulated sugar

3                           eggs

1 Ύ c                milk                                                                                         

Custard Method.


Swiss Buttercream

8 oz                  egg whites

12 oz                sugar

21 oz                butter, well beaten and smooth  

Heat egg whites and sugar over heat to 110*F.  Put on mixer with whip and beat until cool, about 10 minutes.  Add softened butter until smooth.


 

 

 


Pecan Whiskey Tart                                                  

2                      eggs                                                    

3 oz                  brown sugar                                         

1 ½ oz               corn syrup                                           

Ό t                   salt                                                      

Ό t                   vanilla extract                                       

½ oz                 whiskey

1 oz                  melted butter

5 oz                  pecans, chopped

Custard Method.  Drizzle with chocolate after baking.


Orange Chiffon

5 oz                  cake flour                                                                                            

1 1/2 t               baking powder                                      

2 oz                  vegetable oil                                         

1 1/2 oz             egg yolks                                             

3 oz                  orange juice                                         

1 T                   orange zest                                          

                                                                                   

4 oz                  egg whites                                           

2 1/2 oz             sugar                                                   

Chiffon Method

Bake in parchment lined, ungreased, 10" pan 300 F convection 25-30 min or until done.


Chocolate Chiffon

Ό c                   cocoa

Ό c + 2 T          hot water

Ύ c + 2 T          cake flour

½ c + 2 T          sugar

3/4 t                  baking soda

½ t                   salt

Ό c                   oil

4                           egg yolks

1 t                    vanilla

Ό c                   sugar

4                     egg whites

Chiffon Method

Bake in parchment lined, ungreased, 10" pan 300 F convection 25-30 min or until done.


Jellyroll

2 ½ oz              sugar                                       

4 oz                  egg yolk

5 ½ oz              sugar

1 ½ oz              water

4 oz                  cake flour

1 oz                  cocoa powder

6 oz                  egg whites

pinch                salt

2 oz                  sugar

Bake in parchment lined, ungreased ½ sheet pan.              Bake at 325 F convection for 7-10 min


 

 

 

 

 

Pate Sucree

8 oz                  sugar

1 lb                   butter

24 oz                pastry flour

2                      eggs

½ t                   salt

Creaming Method.


Devil’s Food Cake                                        

2 c                    cake flour, sifted

1 t                    baking soda

Ό t                   salt

½ c                   cocoa powder, not sifted

½ c                   warm water

½ c                   buttermilk

½ c                   water

2 t                    vanilla

4 oz                  butter

1 c                    sugar

1 c                    brown sugar, packed

2                           eggs

Bake at 300* F convection for 30 minutes.

Sift baking soda, flour and salt.  Combine warm water and cocoa powder with a whisk.  Combine buttermilk, water and vanilla.  Whisk the eggs in another bowl.  Cream butter for about 45 seconds.  Add sugar and mix at low speed.  Scrape the sides.  Add the eggs in a steady stream.  The appearance should be smooth and silken.  Stop mixing and add cocoa mixture.  Mix until just incorporated.  Add Ό of the flour mixture and alternate with 1/3 of the buttermilk mixture.  End with the flour mixture.   Pour batter into prepared pan and bake at 325*F for 20-25 minutes, or until inserted toothpick comes out clean.


Vanilla Butter Pound Cake

6                      egg, room temperature

6                      egg yolks

1 T                   vanilla extract

1 T                   water

1 lb                   butter, unsalted

1 lb                   sugar or vanilla sugar

1 t                    kosher salt

14 oz                cake flour, sifted

Cream the butter and sugar until light and fluffy (15-20 minutes.)  Combine liquid ingredients and make sure that they are at room temperature.  Slowly add liquids to creamed mixture taking about 10 minutes to add; scrape between additions.  Fold in sifted cake flour Ό at a time.  Divide the batter between 2 greased 8x4 loaf pans.  Bake at 325*F for about 1 hour.


Lemon Curd

4 oz                  fresh lemon juice

4 oz                  butter

4                      egg

7 oz                  granulated sugar

Bring juice, butter and sugar to a boil.  Temper in eggs and cook until thickened.  Cool over an ice bath while whisking.


 

 

 

 

Sabayon

3                      egg yolks

2 ½ oz              sugar

Ύ cup               white wine

Sabayon Method


Quiche

½ cup               cream

½ cup               milk

                     eggs

to taste             salt and pepper

Ό cup               diced onions

2                      basil leaves, chiffonade

1                      clove garlic

1 cup                Swiss cheese, shredded

2                      mushrooms, diced

Saute onions and garlic in oil, then add mushrooms.  Add the basil last.  Allow to cool slightly.  Mix together cream, eggs, salt and pepper.  Put in vegetables, herbs, and cheese in a par-baked piecrust and pour custard mixture on top.  Bake at 315*F until center is set; if the filling gets too dark, put a piece of aluminum foil on top.


Date Bars

1 lb 10 oz          dates pitted

½ cup               water

10 oz                sugar

Ύ cup               lemon juice

1 t                    salt

12 oz                rolled oats

14 oz                bread flour

1 lb 4 oz            brown sugar

1 t                    baking soda

1 lb 4 oz            melted butter

Cook the dates with the water, sugar, lemon juice & salt until soft.  Combine the oats, flour, sugar, soda & melted butter. Press the ½ of the crust mixture into a half-sheet. Spread the date mixture over the crust. Press the remaining crust onto the date mixture. Bake at 325*F until golden brown. Yield: ½ sheet pan


Cardinal Slice

Sponge

4                      egg whites, meringue

6 T                   sugar

Ύ cup               10X sugar

 

4                      eggs, sponge

4                      egg yolks

Ό cup               sugar

Ύ cake flour

Bake at 250*F.

 

Filling

2 cups               cream, whipped

1 oz                  sugar

2 T                   Trablis


 

 

Basic Yellow Cake

4 oz                  butter

8 ½ oz              sugar

2                      eggs

11 oz                cake flour

2 ½ t                 baking powder

½ t                   salt

6 oz                  milk

2 t                    vanilla

Creaming Method


Tuille Batter

8 oz                  butter

10 oz                sugar

8 oz                  egg whites

10 oz                bread flour

Creaming Method


Tuilles Dentelle

8 oz                  butter

8 oz                  sugar

8 oz                  brown sugar

                     orange juice

6 oz                  bread flour

Creaming Method


Florentine Tuille Mix

3 oz                  butter

Ύ cup               brown sugar

½ cup               corn syrup

Heat about until butter lets and comes to a boil.  Take off heat.  Sift in:

1 ½ cups                       pastry flour

Let cool.  Press out on a silpat with wet fingers.  Bake at 325*F.


Berry Coulis

16 oz                fresh or frozen berries

½ cup               granulated sugar

½                     lemon, juiced

Mix berries, sugar, and juice in food processor until smooth. Strain.


Caramel Sauce

8 oz                  sugar

4 oz                  water

1 oz                  butter

8 oz                  cream

Dissolve sugar in water and cook until caramelized.  Add butter and heavy cream and stir until dissolved.  Strain, if necessary.


Almond Crunch

8 oz                  granulated sugar

4 oz                  almonds, sliced

1                      egg white

Mix all ingredients together.  It should resemble wet sand.  Bake at 325*F, until golden and crisp.  Cool and crush.


 

Pate a Choux

12 oz                milk

12 oz                water

12 oz                butter

3 oz                  sugar

½ oz                 salt

1 lb                   bread flour

12                     eggs

Bring water, salt and butter to a boil and mix in flour.  Cook until mix pulls away from the sides of the pot and is in a ball.  Transfer to a mixing bowl; with a paddle begin to add eggs 1 at a time, to desired consistency.  Pipe as desired.  Bake at 400*F, then lower to 350*F to dry out.  Cool and fill as desired.


Pan Ordinaire

1 Ό cup                        warm water

½ oz                 fresh yeast

Combine and dissolve.

3 ½ cup            s           bread flour

1 t                    olive oil

2 t                    kosher salt

Place dry ingredients in a bowl and make a well.  Pour yeast in and work slowly drawing flour in from the sides.  Knead until gluten is developed.  Ferment for 45 minutes to 1 hour.  Punch.  Scale; divide into 2 parts; make-up and panning.  Proof for 45 minutes.  Bake at 450*F for 25 – 30 minutes.  Use steam to spray down the sides of the oven - in 2 minute intervals,, for the first 7-10 minutes of baking.


Pain de Mie

Yield – 2 Loaves

1 lb 12 oz          water

1 ½ oz              yeast

3 lb                   bread flour

1 T                   NFDM

2 ½ T               sugar

1 ½ T               salt

1 oz                  butter

Straight Dough Method

Bake at 425*F.  Steamed


Baguette

Yield – 42 oz (3 baguettes, 18” each, 14 oz each)

15 oz                water

½ oz                 yeast

26 oz                bread flour

½ oz                 salt

Straight Dough Method

Bake at 375*F. steamed


Soft Rolls

2 ½ cups           warm water

1 ½ oz              fresh yeast

2 Ύ lbs              bread flour

4 oz                  butter

2 oz                  NFDM

4 oz                  sugar

2                      eggs

1 oz                  salt

Straight Dough Method

Bake at 325*F convection

Vocabulary

 

CHEF                           Chief of the kitchen

 

BAIN MARIE              A container of water to keep foods hot, steam table or double boiler and a deep, narrow container for storing hot sauces, soups or gravies.

 

BAKING                      To surround foods with hot dry air, usually in an oven.

 

COBBLER                   Deep-dish fruit desert with biscuit topping

 

POACHING                 To cook in hot water, 160-180 degrees

 

SAUTΙ                                    To fry quickly in a small amount of fat over high heat

 

PETIT FOURS             Fancy, small, filled cakes

 

SCORE                                    To mark or cut lightly

 

APPAREIL                  A prepared mixture

 

BATTER                      Mixture of flour and liquid usually eggs and milk

 

BEATING                    Regular lifting and stirring motion to smooth texture, often for the purpose of incorporating air into the mixture

 

EGG WASH                  Beaten egg, often with water or milk

 

ZEST                           The colored rinds of citrus fruits containing essential oils.

 

CHANTILLY                Whipped cream usually flavored with vanilla and sweetened with sugar

 

CHARLOTTE  RUSSE Lady fingers with whipped cream and gelatin

 

COMPOTE                  Fruit stewed or preserved in syrup; also dish for fruit.

 

COUPΙ                        A layered ice cream dessert

 

FLAN                          A caramel custard or open fruit tart

 

FRAPPΙ                      Partially frozen, iced

 

MERINGUE                 Egg white and sugar beaten together

 

ZABAGLIONE                        Dessert sauce with egg yolks, sugar, and marsala

 

BEURRE                     Butter

 

CREPES                      Thin French pancakes

 

SUPREMES                 Skinless segments of citrus fruits. 

 

 


 

 

 

 

BK 101 - An Historical Perspective

 

Humans tend to seek out and prefer the familiar, reassuring foods of their native countries.  Brillat Savarin knew this well when he said, “Tell me what you eat and I will tell you who you are.”  The foods that grow in a particular region, the cooking methods typically used, the seasonings, and the style of eating are all part of a community’s shared behavior.

There is an equally strong tendency in humans to explore new regions, to learn about other groups, and to acquire as our own whatever we come across that fits into our ideas of what is “right”.  Travel has a broadening influence, not only on the kinds of foods that are deemed suitable, but also on the ways in which familiar and unfamiliar foods are prepared.  Although some peoples have tended to stay in one area for generations upon generations, others have roamed from one end of a continent to the other, ventured out onto the high seas and discovered new lands.

            The quest to conquer other lands has been another potent spur to the growth and evolution of cooking.  The Greeks and Romans were, perhaps, the most effective at bringing about changes that altered completely the eating habits of most Western hemisphere inhabitants.  The delicacies and choicest goods of each conquered country became their “property”.  Leavened breads, sweet wines, forcemeats, sauces, and “composed dishes” all became part of the Greek repertoire after they gained control of Egypt , Persia , Babylon , and India .

            This exchange was never completely one sided.  When the Romans marched through what would one day become Europe , they brought along their own way of seasoning dishes, as well as recipes for pickles, cheeses, and special cakes and breads.  Several of these influences can still be seen today; examples include the sweet sour sauces of modern Italy and the sauerkraut or sauerbraten of modern Germany .

            Another example of culinary influence through conquest is that of the Moors over the Spaniards.  The use in Spain and Portugal of typically Moorish ingredients, such as sweet syrups, pastries, and almonds, is evidence today of their centuries long dominion.

            As the world moved into the Dark Ages, travel began to diminish, although crusaders in the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries still were making journeys to the Holy Land, and the devout continued to make pilgrimages to various shrines and holy places.  Most of the books that discussed food and cookery and the formulas for rich exotic dishes were safe guarded in monasteries’ libraries, while outside their walls the people continued to prepare the rough, simple dishes that had sustained them for generations.

            Exploration of new worlds was slow, and it took many decades before any real influence on the established European cuisines was felt.  Eventually European explorers traveled to the Americas and the West Indies .  They returned with such “new world” foods as chocolate, chilies, beans, corn, tomatoes, and potatoes.

            Many of these items were at first regarded as poisonous.  Potatoes, a member of the deadly nightshade family, met with especially strong resistance.  A famous French agronomist, Antoine August Parmentier (1737-1813), finally broke through the deep seated fear of potatoes with a campaign, begun in 1774.  By the time the French Revolution began in 1789, they were as familiar on the French table as bread.  Other new foods that seemed more familiar, or at least bore a surface resemblance to foods already available in Europe , such as the turkey, were taken up immediately and enthusiastically.

            With the end of the Dark Ages came a resurgence of travel by the wealthy.  At first, this was a time consuming and hazardous undertaking.  However, new modes of travel, such as improved ships able to make long sea journeys, made it possible for the noble classes to move with greater freedom.  They carried their own approach to foods and cookery with them, but also were influenced by the foods that they found.  The number of French chefs in Russia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is a testimony to the way in which cuisines tended to travel from one part of the world to another.  Thomas Jefferson'’ repeated trips to Europe introduced macaroni, ice cream, and a host of new fruits and vegetables to the United States .  Immigrants traveling from one country to another, whether to escape religious persecution or to try to find a better life, brought with them their traditional dishes and ways of cooking.  Each new group’s special drinks, breads, cakes, and other foods eventually were intermingled with the foods brought by previous arrivals and with indigenous foods.

            The soldiers from the United States who fought in the World Wars returned to this country with a newly acquired taste for the traditional foods of France , Italy , Germany , and Japan .  As the twentieth century wore on, the middle class was able to afford foreign travel for pleasure.  Today, travel influences the type of cuisines featured in contemporary restaurants.  Foods from the Caribbean , the Middle East, and previously lesser known French and Italian regions have become more familiar as the world continues to “shrink”.  Chefs and patrons alike are discovering the pleasures of foods from countries as diverse as Portugal , Thailand , and New Zealand .  Just as travel has made it easier for the guest to get to the food, it is also a far simpler, faster, and cheaper matter to get food from all over the world to the chef’s kitchen.

 

Royalty and the Rise of the Middle Class

           

European royal families often intermarried for reasons of state and to form political alliances.  With the union of these families came a blending of the customs of different countries.  This mingling resulted not only in the exchange of cooking styles and special dishes, but also

of social etiquette as well.  For example,

Caterina de Medici, a sixteenth century Italian princess who came to France as the result of a royal alliance, brought her chefs from Florence .  The number of “Florentine” dishes in the classic French repertoire attests to their influence.

            Once the monarchies and the feudal system began to decline, a change occurred in the social structure.  The chefs who had once worked in the royal households took positions in the wealthy homes of a newly rich and “non noble” class.  The result was an expansion of the cuisine of the nobility, first to the upper class, and eventually to the large and growing middle class.

            The gradual dissolution of strict class lines, and the ability of people to move from the lower class to the middle or upper classes, allowed the cookery of the upper class or nobility, known as haute cuisine, to blend with the cooking of hearth and home, cuisine bourgeoisie.  This exchange between domestic cooks and classically trained chefs in all countries produced a number of innovations and refinements.  The effect was to spur growth and change, and to keep classic cooking from becoming dull and stale.

 

Science and Technology

 

            From the time that man first learned to control fire, advances in science and technology have had a direct relationship to food production and preparation.  Many of these changes have been heralded as great advances for humankind.  Others have been met with resistance.

            Advances in farm technology have increased yields, improved quality, and overall availability of many foods.  One of the less desirable changes is an increased reliance on single crop farming on a more “industrial” scale.  This style of farming encourages a strong reliance on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and other man made substances in order to enhance crop yields.  Some of this has been done at the expense of soil quality.  It certainly has changed the face of farming across the world, as small family farms are less and less part of the overall picture.

            Hybridization of crops has cut down on the variety of foodstuffs that are grown.  This means that, unless a crop has been preserved in a privately owned seed bank, an entire strain can be lost.  We are only now beginning to understand the consequences of allowing cultivated and wild species to become extinct.

            Animal husbandry, through the ability to breed desirable characteristics in and undesirable ones out, allows us to raise animals that provide better yield and flavor, as well as less fat.  It also has led to ever increasing problems with diseases that need to be treated with antibiotics.  These drugs and others, such as growth hormones used to stimulate milk production in cattle, are being looked at with some alarm.

            Equipment and tools have undergone an evolution, from the rudimentary cutting tools and cooking vessels that first allowed foods to be boiled in liquids to the gas and electric stoves, microwave ovens, and computerized equipment of today.  Refrigeration allows foods to be held longer and shipped farther, without significant loss of quality.

            Scientific developments have allowed us to improve on techniques for food storage, increasing both the shelf life and wholesomeness of foods and reducing the incidence of food spoilage, contamination, and poisoning.  Examples of these technical advances include pasteurization, freeze-drying, vacuum packing, and irradiation.

            Improved methods of transportation make possible the availability of food from other geographic areas and the ability to use foods once considered “out of season”.  High quality produce is now available year round, and special items once usable only in the area where they were produced are now available worldwide.  This has had a negative impact, too.  We have become increasingly less aware of what foods are native to a given region, when and for how long they are in season, and how they taste when they ripen on the vine instead of in transit.

 

Nutrition

 

            Nutrition has become so much a part of everyday life that we can easily forget just how young a science it actually is.  The study of how foods help the body grow, rejuvenate, fight disease, and prevent the onset of certain conditions is constantly uncovering clues to how we can eat “smarter”.  The chef’s role is challenging in this regard.

            The first task is to learn the rudiments of nutrition.  In nutrition class, you will learn the basic components of foods as they relate to nutrition. You will also see the dietary recommendations currently suggested.  This type of information is important for your overall menu plan, production techniques, and recipe development.

            Your guests have as much access to this information as you do.  Remember that much of the data released by the popular press is seen as contradictory.  People remain perplexed by such topics as cholesterol in the diet versus cholesterol in the blood.  They find it hard to separate the hard facts about alcohol as a beverage from the reports about the French Paradox.  They are no longer certain if it is butter that is evil, margarine that must be avoided, or coconut and palm kernel oil that is responsible for cardiovascular disease, or if they should immediately start pouring extra virgin olive oil over everything they eat.

            It is no easier for a professional chef to glean the most pertinent facts and put them to practical use.  Reading current books and magazines is a starting point.  Work with professional nutritionists or use some of the excellent software available.  There are courses available to you and your staff through various continuing education programs that can help you to apply new information to classic techniques and recipes, or to develop new approaches to creating a while new menu or individual menu items.

 

Restaurant History and Evolution

 

            The first restaurant (as we know restaurants today) opened in Paris in 1765.  Monsieur Boulanger, a tavern keeper, served a dish of sheep’s feet, or trotters, in a white sauce as a restorative or restorante.  Although he was brought to court for infringing on a separate guild’s monopoly on the sale of cooked foods, he won the case and was allowed to continue.  Once the ice was broken, other restaurants followed in fairly rapid succession.

            The French Revolution (1789-99) had a particularly significant effect on restaurant proliferation, because many chefs who previously had worked for the monarchy or nobility fled the country to escape the guillotine’s specter.  Although some sought employment with the noble classes in other countries, others began to open their own establishments.

            Restaurants became increasingly refined operations.  Although they were at first frequented only by men, this would change as customs in society and in the foodservice industry as a whole changed.

            The grand cuisine, a careful code established by Antoine Careme detailing numerous dishes and their sauces in La Cuisine Classique and other volumes, came to restaurants much more slowly than it did to nobility’s kitchens.  The menus of most hotels and restaurants offered a simple table d’hτte, which provided little if any choice.  The grande cuisine offered a carte (or list) of suggestions available from the kitchen.  The a la carte restaurant had begun to make inroads on the traditional “men’s club” atmosphere of most restaurants and cafes.

            When the Savoy Hotel opened in London in 1898 (under the direction of Cesar Ritz and Auguste Escoffier), grande cuisine was still the exception.  These two gentlemen waged a successful campaign to assure that their a la carte offerings were of the finest, that their service was the best, and that it was all delivered to the guest on the finest china and crystal.  As a result, ladies and gentlemen of good standing finally could be found in the dining rooms of restaurants in England , France , and elsewhere.

            Today, the variety of dining establishments reflects the interests, lifestyles, and needs to a modern society:  brasseries, bistros, “white tablecloth” or fine dining, ethnic restaurants, fast food spots, takeout companies, hotel dining rooms, banquet halls, and the list goes on.

 

 

 

Major Historical Figures

 

            The following list of major influential figures is by no means complete.  Further reading about notable figures throughout the history of cooking is recommended.

 

·         Caterina de Medici (1519-1589), an Italian princess from the famous Florentine family, married the Duc d’Orleans, later Henri II of France .  She introduced a more refined style of dining, including the use of the fork and the napkin.  Her Florentine chefs influenced French chefs as well, most particularly in the use of spinach.

·         Anne of Austria (1601-1666), wife of Louis XIII, was a member of the Spanish Hapsburg family.  Her retinue included Spanish chefs who introduced sauce Espagnole and the use of roux as a thickener for sauces.

·         Pierre Francois de la Varenne (1615-1678) was the author of the first cookbook to summarize the cooking practices of the French nobility.  His Le Vrai Cuisinier Francois was published in 1651.

·         Jean Anthelme Brillat Savarin (1755-1826) was a French politician and gourmet and a renowned writer.  His work, Le Physiologie de Gout (The Physiology of Taste), is highly regarded to this day.

·         Marie Antoine Careme (1784-1833) became known as the founder of the grande cuisine and was responsible for systematizing culinary techniques.  He had a profound influence on the later writing of Escoffier, and was known as the “chef of kings, king of chefs”.

·         Charles Ranhofer (1836-1899) was the first internationally renowned chef of an American restaurant, Delmonico’s, and the author of The Epicurean.

·         Georges Auguste Escoffier (1847-1935) was a renowned chef and teacher.  He was the author of Le Guide Culinaire, a major work codifying classic cuisine’s that is still widely used by professional chefs.  His other significant contributions include simplifying the classic menu in accordance with the principles advocated by Careme, and initiating the brigade system.  Escoffier’s influence on the foodservice industry cannot be overemphasized.

·         Fernand Point (1897-1955) was the chef/owner of La Pyramide restaurant in Vienna , France .  He went even further than Escoffier in bringing about a change in cooking styles and laid the foundations for nouvelle cuisine.

 

Contemporary Chefs

 

            From the time of Fernand Point to the present day, there has been a virtual explosion in the kitchen.  New or rediscovered cooking styles have changed the landscape of restaurants throughout the world.  Nouvelle cuisine, first made popular by such famed chefs as Paul Bocusse, Jean Troisgros, Roger Verge, and Michel Guerard, swept onto the scene with enormous force.

            An emerging sense of national cuisine gave rise to American cuisine.  Larry Forgione (The River Cafι, An American Place), Jeremiah Tower (Stars), Alice Waters (Chez Panisse), and Dean Fearing (Mansion on Turtle Creek) were among those in the vanguard of this new cooking style.  For the first time, chefs trained in the United States were achieving worldwide recognition.

            Keeping track of the latest “hot” chef in the restaurant world has become a nearly impossible task.  Media attention on new restaurants, “rising star” chefs, and the latest dining trends has continued to grow in importance.  As we enter the twenty-first century, the face of this industry is changing just as surely as other industries are changing.

            Throughout the world, individual chefs are raising the standards of this profession.  They are well-trained and highly motivated.  Today, the profession has attained a level of respect that was not always forthcoming in this nation.  The considerable amount of interaction between cultures, the more widespread availability of special foods, and an increasingly sophisticated clientele have been the driving forces behind the growth, diversity, and excitement found in the restaurant world today.

            Chefs are not the only people to attain status and high regard in the foodservice industry.  Writers, critics, and reviewers have made a mark on the evolution of the field.  While there is a great tradition of food writing from time immemorial, today’s food writers have become versed in such specialized areas as nutrition, history and culture, ecology as it relates to the foodservice industry, and health issues.  Teachers, photographers, and good stylists help to shape what appears on menus and plates throughout the country.

            The list of names of those who have had a measurable impact on the public’s perception of all manner of food related issues is long and grows longer each day.

 

Today’s Currents and trends

 

            The restaurant business as a whole is subject to the same changes that affect our entire culture.  Today’s family is not what it was 20 or 30 years ago.  There are whole new ways to go to work, study, and be entertained now.  The future is bristling both with possibilities and uncertainties.

 

Family Structure Changes

 

            The extended family – grandparents, parents, children, and assorted aunts, uncles and cousins all living together – is now a rarity.  The traditional “nuclear” family – working father, mother at home, two children in school – is also getting harder to find.  It is far more likely that both the father and mother are working, or that the family has only a single parent.

            “Baby boomers” who waited until much later in life to start their families are often unwilling to give up their careers.  For any family in which the major caregivers are also the major wage earners, finding ways to minimize demands on time is essential.  More often, meals are either eaten in a restaurant or they are takeout foods.

            The double income family and increasing numbers of single professional people have brought about significant growth in the foodservice industry.  These people have more disposable income but less time to cook at home, so they tend to eat out more often.  This circumstance also has spurred the growth of “carryout cuisine” or “takeout”, which is offered by gourmet shops, delicatessens, and supermarkets, as well as by restaurants filling orders for home consumption.

            Single professionals and the growing numbers of retired persons have shifted the demographics of this country dramatically.  Though the requirements of these two groups may not be identical, they are both looking to the foodservice industry to meet their special needs, whether it be gourmet shops or “early bird” specials.

 

Media and the Information Superhighway

 

            There are many ways to get information.  Print media, including books, magazines, periodicals, and newsletters, crowd the shelves of the local newsstand and bookstore.  Special interest publications are among the most often used resources for any professional.  Videos, video conferencing, and multi media forums such as CD ROM and interactive software are moving rapidly into center stage as a source for information, inspiration, and networking.

            Information overload is a very real concern.  It has become a more difficult task to sort out what is truly reliable.  Fads grow (and die) quickly.  In fact, it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish a passing fad from a newly emerging trend.  “Stars” and “hot spots” come and go rapidly as well.  The pressure of being the latest, hottest and the best can be overwhelming.  It is no longer uncommon to hear a talented chef bemoan the fact that he or she is away from the kitchen too much, is being pulled in too many directions, and feels burned out.  Media attention can be a mixed blessing.

            Accurate and timely reporting has and will always be a valued commodity.  Journalists have assumed a larger importance in the food world as well as the total news and media picture.

            Concerns about food safety, health, nutrition, and matters of cultural interest are important to a wider audience than chefs.

 

Summary

The social act of dining is one of the ways that humans are distinct from other species.  We eat, not just to nourish our bodies, but also to strengthen our ties as a group.  Foods are prepared before they are eaten.  They are grown, hunted, or gathered; cut, cleaned, and trimmed; cooked and presented to the assembled group.  This collection of activities has become a central focus of daily life and one of the unifying factors of all human society and culture.  Chefs have played a critical role in the spread of these civilizing behaviors.  Understanding how this profession first began, how it has changed, and what its potential can be is the first step in a lifelong path toward becoming a professional chef.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Ingredient and Equipment Identification

 

Dairy, Cheese, and Egg Identification

 

A concentrated source of many nutrients – especially protein and calcium – dairy products and eggs hold a prominent place on menus.  Milk and milk products are not only used as beverages but as ingredients in many dishes.  Bιchamel sauce, for example, is based on milk.  Cream, crθme Fraiche, sour cream, and yogurt are used to finish sauces, to prepare salad dressings, and in many baked goods.

 

Cheese may be served as is, perhaps as a separate course with fruit, or as part of another dish.  Fondue, raclette, and Welsh rarebit are classic dishes from around the world that feature cheese.

 

Eggs appear on menus throughout the day – from morning breakfast dishes to desert soufflιs served at midnight .  Eggs’ unique composition makes them useful in the preparation of numerous sauces, especially emulsified ones, such as hollandaise and mayonnaise.

 

Purchasing and Storage

 

Although dairy products and eggs are two separate kinds of products, freshness and wholesomeness are important for both.  Both are also highly perishable.  For these reasons, careful purchasing and storage procedures are extremely important.

 

Milk and cream containers customarily are dated to indicate how long the contents will remain fresh enough to use.  Because the freshness period will vary, the chef should not combine, or “marry,” milk and cream from separate containers, to avoid contamination.

 

When used in hot dishes, milk or cream should be brought to a boil before being added to other ingredients.  If milk curdles it should not be used.  Unfortunately, detecting spoilage by simply smelling or tasting unheated milk is often impossible.

 

When considering storage arrangements for dairy products, flavor transfer is a particular concern.  Storing all milk, cream, and butter away from foods with strong odors is preferable, when feasible.  Cheeses should be carefully wrapped, both to maintain moistness and to prevent the odor from permeating the other foods and vice versa.

 

Eggs should be refrigerated and the stock rotated to assure that only fresh, wholesome eggs are served.  The chef should inspect eggs carefully upon delivery, making sure that shells are clean and free of cracks.  Eggs with broken shells should be discarded because of the high contamination risk.

 

Dairy Products

 

Milk – Milk is invaluable in the kitchen, whether it is served as a beverage or used as a component in dishes.  U.S. federal regulations govern how milk is produced and sold, to assure that it is clean and safe to use.

 

Most milk sold in the United States has been pasteurized.  In pasteurization, the milk is heated to 145°F (63°C) for 30 minutes, or to 161°F (72°C) for 15 seconds in order to kill bacteria or other organisms that could cause infection or contamination.  Milk products with a higher percentage of milkfat are heated to either 150°F (65°C) for 30 minutes or to 166°F (74°C) for 30 seconds for ultra pasteurization.

 

The date stamp on milk and cream cartons is 10 days from the point of pasteurization.  For example, if milk was pasteurized on October 10, the date on the carton would read October 20.  If the product has been properly stored and handled, it should still be fresh and wholesome on the stamped date.

 

Milk is also generally homogenized, which means that it has been forced through an ultra fine mesh at high pressure in order to break up the fat globules it contains.  This fat is then

dispersed evenly throughout the milk, preventing it from rising to the surface.  Milk may also be fortified with vitamins A and D.  Lowfat or skim milk is almost always fortified, because removing the fat also removes fat-soluble vitamins.

 

State and local government standards for milk are fairly consistent.  Milk products are carefully inspected before and after production.  Farms and animals (cows, sheep, and goats) are also inspected, to assure that sanitary conditions are upheld.  Milk that has been properly produced and processed is labeled “grade A”.

 

Milk comes in various forms and is classified according to its percentage of fat and milk solid.

 

Cream – Milk as it comes from the cow, goat, or sheep, contains a certain percentage of fat, known alternately as milkfat or butterfat.  Originally, milk was allowed to settle long enough for the cream, which is lighter than the milk, to rise to the surface.  Today, a centrifuge is used to spin the milk.  The cream is driven to the center where it can be easily drawn off, leaving the milk behind.

 

Cream, like milk, is homogenized and pasteurized, and may also be stabilized to help extend shelf life.  Some chefs prefer cream that has not been stabilized or ultrapasteurized because they believe it will whip to a greater volume.  Two forms of cream are used in most kitchens:  heavy (whipping) cream and light cream.  Half and half, a combination of whole milk and cream, does not contain enough milkfat to be considered a true cream.  Its milkfat content is approximately 10.5 percent.

 

Ice Cream – In order to meet government standards, any product labeled as ice cream must contain a certain amount of milkfat.  For vanilla, it is no less than 10 percent milkfat.  For any other flavor, the requirement is 8 percent.  Stabilizers can make up no more than 

2 percent of ice cream.  Ice creams that contain less fat should be labeled “ice milk”.

 

Premium brand ice cream may contain several times more fat than is required by these standards.  The richest ice creams have a custard base (a mixture of cream and/or milk and eggs), which gives them a dense, smooth texture.  It should readily melt in the mouth.  When the ice cream is allowed to melt at room temperature, there should be no separation.  The appearance of “weeping” in melting ice cream indicates an excessive amount of stabilizers.

 

Other frozen desserts similar to ice cream are:  sherbet, sorbet, granite, gelatin, frozen yogurt, and frozen tofu.  Sherbet does not contain cream, and so it is far lower in butterfat than ice creams.  It does contain a relatively high percentage of sugar in order to achieve the correct texture and consistency during freezing.  Some sherbets will contain a percentage of either eggs or milk, or both.

 

Although the word “sherbet” is the closest English translation of the French word “sorbet”, sorbets are commonly understood to contain no milk.

 

Granites, the simplest forms of “ices”, are basically flavored syrups that are allowed to freeze.  Once solid, they are scraped to produce large crystals or flakes.

 

Frozen yogurts and tofu often contain stabilizers and a high percentage of fat.  They may be lower in total fat than ice cream or even fat free, but some brands are still high in calories due to a high sugar content.

 

Test a variety of these products to determine which brand offers the best quality for the best price.

 

Butter – Anyone who has accidentally over whipped cream has been well on the way to producing butter.

 

Historically, butter was churned by hand.  Today it is made mechanically by mixing cream that contains between 30 and 45 percent milkfat at a high speed.  Eventually, the milkfat clumps together, separating out into a solid mass, which leaves a fluid referred to as buttermilk.  The solid mass is butter.

 

The best quality butter has a sweet flavor, similar to very fresh heavy cream.  If salt has been added, it should be barely detectable.  The color of butter will vary depending upon the breed of cow and time of year, but is usually a pale yellow.  The cow’s diet will vary from season to season, affecting the color and flavor of the butter.

 

The designation “sweet butter” indicates only that the butter is made from sweet (as opposed to sour) cream.  It does not mean necessarily that the butter is unsalted.  If unsalted butter is desired, be sure that the word “unsalted” appears on the package.

 

Salted butte may contain no more than a maximum of 2 percent salt.  This added salt will aid in extending butter’s shelf life.  It may also mask a slightly “old” flavor or aroma.  Old butter will take on a very faintly cheesy flavor and aroma, especially when heated, as it is for cooking and baking.  As it continues to deteriorate, the flavor and aroma can become quite pronounced, and extremely unpleasant, much like sour or curdled milk.

 

The best quality butter, labeled “grade AA”, is made from sweet cream.  It has the best flavor, color, aroma, and texture.  Grade A butter also is of excellent quality.  Both grades AA and A contain a minimum of 80 percent fat.  Grade B may have a slightly acidic taste, as it is made from sour cream.

 

Fermented and Cultured Milk Products

 

Yogurt, sour cream, crθme fraiche, and buttermilk are all produced by inoculating milk or cream with a bacterial strain that causes fermentation to begin.  The fermentation process thickens the milk and gives it a pleasantly sour flavor.

 

Yogurt is made by introducing the proper culture into milk (while, lowfat, or skim may be used).  Available in a variety of container sizes, yogurt can be purchased plain or flavored with different fruits, honey, coffee, or other ingredients.

 

Sour cream is a cultured sweet cream that contains about 16 to 22% fat.  It comes in containers of various sizes, beginning with a half pint.  Low, reduced, and nonfat versions of sour cream are also available.

Crθme Fraiche is similar to sour cream but has a slightly more rounded flavor, with less bite.  It is often preferred in cooking, since it curdles less readily than sour cream in hot dishes.  This product is made from heavy cream with a butterfat content of approximately 30 percent.  This high butterfat content helps account for its higher cost.

 

Although crθme Fraiche is available commercially, many operations make their own.  They heat heavy cream, add a small amount of buttermilk, and allow the mixture to ferment at room temperature until thickened and lightly soured.

 

Buttermilk, strictly speaking is the by product of churned butter.  Despite its name, it contains only a very small amount of butterfat.  Most buttermilk sold today is actually skim milk to which a bacterial strain has been added.  Usually sold in pints or quarts, buttermilk is also available as a dried powder for baking uses.

 

Eggs

 

Eggs are one of the kitchen’s most important items.  From mayonnaise to meringues, soups to sauces, appetizers to desserts, they are prominent on any menu.  Today’s consumer is well aware of the potential for foodborne illness through eggs.  Therefore, we will look first at basic rules for safe handling here.

·         All eggs in the shell should be free from cracks, leaking, or obvious holes.

·         Eggs should be cooked to a minimum of 165ΊF (74ΊC) to kill the salmonella bacteria.  Fried eggs or poached eggs with runny yolks should be prepared only at customer request.

·         Any foods containing eggs must be kept within safe temperatures throughout handling, cooking, and storage.  Cooling and reheating must be done quickly over direct heat.

 

The egg is composed of two parts:  the white and the yolk.  Each is able to play a number if important culinary roles.  Whole eggs are used as the main component of many breakfast dishes and can be prepared by scrambling, frying, poaching, baking or in custards.  Eggs are also used to glaze baked goods, and add nourishment, flavor, and color.  Despite concerns over safe handling, the egg remains one of the most adaptable and functional ingredients in the chef’s larder.

 

Egg Whites

 

The white consists almost exclusively of protein and water.  The protein is known as “albumen.”  Its ability to form a relatively stable foam is crucial to the development of proper structure in many items:  angel food cakes, soufflιs, meringues.  They are a key ingredient in clarifying stocks and broths to produce consommιs.  Egg whites may replace some or all other binders used in some forcemeats, especially mousselines made from fish, poultry, or vegetables.

 

Egg Yolks

 

The yolk also has the ability to foam.  This function, plus its ability to form emulsions, make egg yolks crucial to the preparation of items including mayonnaise, hollandaise, and genoise.  Yolks are also responsible for providing additional richness to foods, as when they are included as a liaison in sauces or soups.  The yolk contains protein and, in addition, significant amounts of fat and a natural emulsifier called lecithin.

 

Grading Sizes, and Market Forms

 

Eggs are graded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture on the basis of external appearance and freshness.  The top grade, AA, indicates that the egg is fresh, with a white that will not spread unduly once the egg is broken.  The yolk should ride high on the white’s surface.  The yolk is anchored in place by twisted white membranes known as the chalaza.

 

Eggs come in a number of sizes:  jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small and pee wee.

 

Younger hens produce smaller eggs, which are often regarded to be of a better quality than larger eggs.  Medium eggs are best for breakfast cookery, where the cooked egg’s appearance is important.  Large and extra large eggs are generally used for cooking and baking, where the whole egg’s appearance is less critical.

 

Eggs are also sold in several processed forms:  bulk, or fluid, whole eggs (which sometimes includes a percentage of extra yolks to obtain a specific blend), egg whites, and egg yolks.  Pasteurized eggs are used in preparations such as salad dressings, eggnog, or desserts where the traditional recipe may have indicated that the eggs should be raw.  These products generally are available in liquid or frozen form.

 

Dried, powdered eggs are also sold and may be useful for some baked goods or in certain specific circumstances.  For instance, on shipboard, it may not be possible to properly store fresh eggs for the duration of a voyage.

 

MISE EN PLACE

 

Mise en place is a French phrase that translates as “to put in place”.  For the true professional, it means far more than simply assembling all the ingredients, pots and pans, plates, and serving pieces needed for a particular period.

 

Mise en place is also a state of mind.  Someone who has truly grasped the concept is able to keep many tasks in mind simultaneously, weighing and assigning each its proper value and priority.  This assures that the chef has anticipated and prepared for every situation that could logically occur during a service period.

 

The techniques, terms, basic preparations (or appareils), and skills covered in this chapter represent only the most basic elements of mise en place, gathered together for easy reference.  They include knife skills, common seasoning and flavoring combinations, and techniques for mixing, shaping, and cooking a variety of ingredients and preparations, ranging from meat fabrication to stocks and court bouillons.

 

Knife Skills

 

Knife skills include basic and advanced cuts that are used every day to prepare vegetables and other ingredients.  Some of these cuts are quite familiar.  Others are more unusual and may even require specialized tools or equipment.  Some ingredients (onions, peppers, tomatoes, and leeks, for example) may demand special handling or preparation prior to cutting.  These advance preparation steps will be discussed in the next section of this chapter.

 

Holding the Knife

 

It is important to be comfortable with your knife as you work.  There are several different ways a knife can be held.  The way you hold the

knife will be determined in part by the way your knife and your hand fit one another.  The grip you choose will also be determined according to the task at hand.  Delicate cutting or shaping techniques will call for greater control, involving the fingertips more than the fist.  Coarser chopping and cutting tasks require a firmer grip and more leverage.  The three basic grips used with a chef’s knife are as follows:

 

1.       Grip the handle with all four fingers and hold the thumb gently but firmly on tom of the blade.

2.       Grip the handle with four fingers and hold the thumb firmly against the side of the blade.

3.       Grip the handle with three fingers, resting the index finger flat against the blade on one side, and holding the thumb on the opposite side to give additional stability and control for finer cuts.

 

The Guiding Hand

 

The guiding hand, the hand not holding the knife, is used to hold the object being cut.  This is done to prevent the food from slipping as you cut it.  It also makes it easier to control the size of the cut or slice you are making.  Your fingertips hold the object, with the thumb held back from the fingertips and the fingertips tucked under slightly, so that your knuckles curl out over your fingertips.  The knife blade then rests against your knuckles, preventing your fingers form being cut.

 

INGREDIENT FUNCTIONS

 

Freshly baked breads and desserts make a good and lasting impression on the guests and contribute significantly to an operation’s success.  Although baking and pastry can be a specialization in itself, every chef must learn basic procedures and be able to produce items such as pie dough, puff pastry, and simple, pleasing desserts.

 

The function of various ingredients and how they will affect the finished product by giving it a tender “crumb,” a will developed crust, or a very light texture are examined in this section.  Also included are the sic basic functions of ingredients and the techniques of measuring (known as scaling), proper pan preparation, sifting, tempering chocolate, and working a pastry bag.  The chef should always bear in mind that baking is science that depends on exact measurements and the proper handling of ingredients and tools in order to ensure the same results consistently.

 

Although baking is not a difficult process, understanding the role that a given ingredient will play in the finished product is important.  Baking ingredients will generally fall into six basic categories of function:

 

·         Strengtheners, such as flour and eggs

·         Shorteners, such as butter and oils

·         Sweeteners, or liquifiers, including a variety of sugars and syrups

·         Chemical and organic leaveners

·         Thickeners, such as cornstarch, flour, and eggs

·         A number of different flavorings

 

As this list demonstrates, one ingredient may fulfill a number of different functions; for example, eggs and flour can each be categorized as both a strengthener and a thickener.

 

Strengtheners

 

Strengtheners provide stability, ensuring that the baked good does not collapse once it is removed from the oven.  For most baked items, the major strengthener is flour, often referred to as the “backbone” of baked goods, because it provides the structure or framework.

Flours include wheat flours of varying “strengths” or hardness, from soft pastry flours to hard wheats used for breads and pastas, as well as special flours and meals including whole grain flours, rye, pumpernickel, oat, rice, or cornmeal.

 

Flour functions as a strengthener because of its proteins and starches.  The proteins present in eggs (found in the whites and yolks) allow them to serve as a strengthener as well.  Eggs are used in this way for cakes, such as genoise, angel food, and chiffon, made by the foaming method.

 

Starches are also important to many baked goods’ overall structure.  The starch granules first swell in the presence of liquid.  Then, as they are heated, they swell even more, trapping liquid or steam within their expanded frame.  As heat continues to set the starch into a stable structure, texture is also affected.

 

Shorteners

 

Shorteners make baked goods tender and moist.  This occurs when the shortener (butter, oil, hydrogenated shortening, or lard) is incorporated into the batter.  The fat tends to surround the flour and other ingredients, breaking the long strands of gluten in the batter or dough into shorter units – hence the term “shorteners.”

 

The way in which the fat is incorporated will affect the item’s overall texture.  Fats that are rubbed or rolled into doughs tend to spearate the dough into large layers, creating a flaky

texture.  When the fat is thoroughly creamed together with sugar so that it can be mixed evenly throughout the batter, the resulting item’s texture will be more cake like and tender.

 

Fat also helps to retain moisture in the finished product.  In addition to the fats and oils commonly considered shorteners, egg yolks, soft cheeses, cream, and milk may also fall into this category because they contain a relatively high percentage of fat.

 

Sweeteners

 

Sweeteners (sugars, syrups, honey, and molasses) perform other functions in addition to providing flavor.  Sugars in any form tend to attract moisture, so baked goods containing sweeteners generally are moist and tender.  They also have a longer shelf life than unsweetened baked goods.

 

The caramelization of sugar is responsible for the appealing brown color on the surface of many baked products.  Heat applied to the sugar causes this browning reaction.  Besides affecting the color, caramelization also gives a product a deep, rich, and complex flavor.  An obvious example is the difference in taste between simple syrup, made by dissolving a sugar in water, and a caramel syrup.

 

Leaveners

 

Leaveners produce a desirable texture by introducing a gas, carbon dioxide, into the batter or dough by one of three means:  chemical, organic, or physical.

 

Chemical Leaveners

 

Baking soda and baking powder are the primary chemical leaveners.  In these leaveners, an alkaline ingredient (baking soda or baking powder) interacts with a liquid to produce a gas, carbon dioxide, when combined in the batter.

 

As the item is baked, this gas expands, giving the baked goods their characteristic texture, known as “crumb.”  This process of expansion happens rapidly; hence, many items prepared with chemical leaveners are called “quick breads.”

 

Double acting baking powder is so called because a first action occurs in the presence of moisture in the batter and a second action is initiated by the presence of heat.  That is, it reacts once when it is mixed with the batter’s liquids and again when the batter is placed in a hot oven.

 

 

Organic Leaveners

 

Organic leaveners, are living organisms that feed on sugars present in flours or as added sweeteners, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide.  Unlike chemical leaveners, organic leaveners take a substantial amount of time to do their job.  They have to grow and reproduce sufficiently to fill the dough with air pockets.

 

Yeast and sourdoughs are organic leaveners, which means that they must be “alive” in order to be effective.  Organic leaveners can be killed by overly high temperatures and, coversely, cold temperatures can inhibit their action.  The temperature of the dough and its environment must be controlled carefully.  Yeast will not function well below approximately 65 to 70ΊF (18 to 21ΊC), and above 110ΊF (43ΊC) yeast is destroyed.

 

Two types of yeast are used in the professional bakeshop:  dry (or granulated) yeast and fresh (compressed) yeast.  Dry yeast, in bulk or packets, should be refrigerated.  It will keep for several months, which makes it suitable for kitchens that only occasionally make their own bread.  Fresh yeast, on the other hand, is quite perishable and can be held under refrigeration for only 7 to 10 days.  It may be frozen for longer storage.  Cold yeast should be allowed to return to room temperature before it is used. 

 

Proofing Yeast

 

If there is any doubt about whether or not the yeast is still alive, it should be “proofed” before it is added to the other ingredients.  Proofing is accomplished as follows:

 

1.       Combine the yeast with warm liquid and a small amount of flour or sugar.

2.       Let the mixture rest at room temperature until a thick surface foam forms.

3.       The foam indicates that the yeast is alive and can be used.  If there is no foam, the yeast is dead and should be discarded.

 

Sourdough starters are used to leaven a variety of country style breads, biscuits, and even pancakes.  Sourdough starters are essentially cultures produced by blending flour and water.  This mixture is then inoculated with an existing yeast, or is left exposed so that wild yeast, naturally present in the air, will begin the process of fermentation.

 

Starters can be kept alive for extended periods, by replenishing the flour and water as some of the starter is removed to prepare baked goods.  This long life has become the stuff of legend in some bakeries where the culture has been kept alive for years, even decades.

 

Different parts of the world have different types of wild yeasts, which lend a particular flavor to the sourdough starter.  In addition, the degree of sourness considered appropriate varies from one region or country to another.  San Francisco sourdough is different from that produced in France .

 

Physical Leaveners

 

The basic physical leavener is steam, which is produced when liquids in a batter or dough are heated.  This causes the air pockets to expand.  Steam leavening is critical in sponge cakes and soufflιs.  It also plays a vital role in the production of puff pastry, croissant, and Danish.  In these products, the steam is trapped, causing the layers to separate and rise.

 

Thickeners

 

Sauces and puddings can be thickened by using various ingredients, including eggs, gelatin, and starches, such as flour, cornstarch, arrowroot, or rice flour.  These thickeners may be used to lightly thicken a mixture, as for a sauce, or to produce an item that is firmly set, such as a Bavarian cream.

 

The quantity and type of thickener, as well as the amount of stirring or other manipulation will determine the finished product’s properties.  For example, if a custard is cooked over direct heat and stirred constantly, the result will be a sauce that pours easily.  The same custard cooked in a bain marie with no stirring at all will set into a firm custard that can be sliced.

 

Arrowroot and cornstarch are generally preferred for thickening sauces, puddings, and fillings where a translucent effect is desired.  If these thickeners are to be diluted before incorporation with other ingredients, they should be mixed with a small amount of cool liquid.

 

Flour is commonly used to thicken items such as crθme patissiere.  In order to prevent lumping, the flour and sugar are often stirred together before they are combined with the liquid.  Flour thickened sauces are also often additionally thickened and enriched with eggs.  The eggs must be tempered to prevent the sauce from curdling.

 

Egg (whole eggs or yolks) may be used either alone or in conjunction with other thickeners.  As the egg proteins begin to coagulate, the liquid becomes trapped in the network of set proteins, producing a nappe texture, in which the sauce will coat the back of a spoon when the spoon is dipped into the sauce and withdrawn.

 

Gelatin, when added in the desired amount, can produce light, delicate foams (Bavarian creams, mousses, and stabilized whipped cream, for example) that are firmly set.  Such foams will retain a mold’s shape and can be sliced.  Gelatin is an animal protein found in bones.  (It is this protein that causes stock to gel as it cools.)  Gelatin powder or sheets are frequently used for a variety of bakeshop items.  Before use, gelatin must first be softened (also known as “bloomed”) in a cool liquid.  Once the gelatin has absorbed the liquid, it is then gently heated to melt the crystals.  This is accomplished either by adding the softened gelatin to a hot mixture, such as a hot custard sauce, or by gently heating the gelatin over simmering water.

 

Flavorings

 

Flavoring ingredients can range from extracts and essences to chocolate chips and chopped nuts.  Whole vanilla beans along with other whole and ground spices are also used.  Various forms of fruit including juices, zest, purees, and dried fruits also can be considered flavorings.  In general, flavoring ingredients do not have a great impact on the characteristics of the batter or dough as it is mixed, shaped, and baked.  Specific recipes throughout the book indicate appropriate flavorings, as well as how and when to add them.

 

Techniques Used to Prepare Ingredients and Equipment Scaling

 

Careful measuring, known as scaling, is more important in baking than in other types of cookery.  The most accurate way to measure ingredients is to weigh them.  Even liquid ingredients are often, though not always, weighed.

 

Various scales may be used in the bakeshop, including balance beam, spring type, or electronic scales.  Other measuring tools, including volume measures and measuring spoons, are also required.

 

After the batter or dough is mixed, it is scaled once more, to ensure that the proper amount is used for the pan size.  Not only does this contribute to the uniformity of products, but it also decreases the possibilities of uneven rising or browning caused by too much or too little dough in the pan.

 

Sifting Dry Ingredients

 

Dry ingredients used for most baked goods should be sifted before they are incorporated into the dough or batter.  Sifting aerates flour and confectioners’ sugar, removing lumps and filtering out any impurities.  Leavening ingredients and some flavoring ingredients (cocoa powder, or example) are more evenly distributed after sifting. 

 

Sifting should take place after the ingredients have been properly scaled.  They are passed through a sifter onto a sheet of parchment paper.  The paper can them be used to transfer the dry ingredients to the batter or dough.

 


           BK 101 Recipes

Apricot Date Scones…………………………………………………………………….15

Almond Cream  (Frangipane)…………………………………………………………...22

Almond Crunch…………………………………………………………………………26

Baguette…………………………………………………………………………………27

Banana Bread…………………………………………………………………………...13

Basic Yellow Cake……………………………………………………………………...26

Berry Coulis…………………………………………………………………………….26

Blueberry Sour Cream Muffins…………………………………………………………14

Bourbon Rosemary Coffee Cake………………………………………………………..14

Brown Bread Muffin……………………………………………………………………12

Butter Spritz Cookies…………………………………………………………………...19

Buttermilk Biscuits……………………………………………………………………...14

Caramel Sauce…………………………………………………………………………..26

Cardinal Slice…………………………………………………………………………...25

Carrot/Zucchini Bread…………………………………………………………………..13

Chocolate Chiffon………………………………………………………………………23

Chocolate Chip Cookies………………………………………………………………..19

Chocolate Chip Orange Scones………………………………………………………...15

Chocolate Fudge Cookies………………………………………………………………18

Chocolate Genoise……………………………………………………………………...21

Chocolate Muffins……………………………………………………………………...12

Chocolate Peanut Butter Cookies………………………………………………………17

Chunky Apple Muffins…………………………………………………………………13

Cooked Fruit Filling…………………………………………………………………….21

Cooked Juice Filling……………………………………………………………………21

Crθme Anglaise…………………………………………………………………………22

Date Bars………………………………………………………………………………..25

Devil’s Food Cake……………………………………………………………………...24

Flaky Pie Dough………………………………………………………………………..21

Florentine Tuille Mix…………………………………………………………………...26

Flour Tortillas…………………………………………………………………………..16

Genoise…………………………………………………………………………………20

Golden Biscotti…………………………………………………………………………19

Hazelnut Chocolate Biscotti……………………………………………………………18

Honey Oatmeal Cookies………………………………………………………………..17

Jalapeno Corn Muffins…………………………………………………………………12

Jellyroll…………………………………………………………………………………23

Ladyfingers I…………………………………………………………………………....20

Ladyfingers II………………………………………………………………………….20

Lemon Curd……………………………………………………………………………24

Lemon Pine Nut Biscotti………………………………………………………………18

Lemon Poppy Seed Bread……………………………………………………………..13

Linzer Dough………………………………………………………………………….19

Mark’s Pound Cake……………………………………………………………………16

Mealy Pie Dough………………………………………………………………………21

Oatmeal Coconut White Chocolate Cookies………………………………………….17

Oatmeal Raisin Scones………………………………………………………………...15

Old Fashion Pie Filling………………………………………………………………..21

Orange Chiffon………………………………………………………………………..23

Pain de Mie……………………………………………………………………………27

Pan Ordinaire………………………………………………………………………….27

Pastry Cream…………………………………………………………………………..22

Pate a Choux…………………………………………………………………………..27

Pate Sucree……………………………………………………………………………24

Pear Ginger Muffins…………………………………………………………………..14

Pecan Whiskey Tart…………………………………………………………………...23

Pound Cake……………………………………………………………………………17

Pumpkin Pie Filling……………………………………………………………………22

Quiche…………………………………………………………………………………25

Raspberry-filled Almond Scones……………………………………………………..16

Ritz-Carlton Brownies………………………………………………………………...20

Sabayon……………………………………………………………………………….25

Shortbread…………………………………………………………………………….16

Soft Rolls……………………………………………………………………………..27

Sugar Cookie…………………………………………………………………………18

Sweet Roll Dough…………………………………………………………………….15

Swiss Buttercream…………………………………………………………………….22

Tuille Batter…………………………………………………………………………..26

Tuilles Dentelle……………………………………………………………………….26

Vanilla Butter Pound Cake……………………………………………………………24

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Last modified: December 05, 2009